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Geopolitics & International Relations in Supply Chain Management: Building Supply Chain Resilience Through Global Connections

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Supply chain management in today’s connected world extends beyond the mechanics of transferring items. Geopolitics and international relations, which create the global environment and have a significant impact on supply chain activities, are intricately entwined with it. International relations dynamics, such as diplomacy, trade agreements, and cooperation between nations, are crucial for promoting global cooperation, supply chain strategy development, and economic progress. We will examine the significance of foreign relations in supply chain management in this blog post and present examples to support our arguments.

Understanding Geopolitics and International Relations

Geopolitics is the study of how geography, politics, and economy interact on a global level. Territorial limits, natural resources, trade agreements, political stability, and foreign relations are just a few examples of the aspects that it includes. These factors have a big impact on supply chains and present opportunities as well as difficulties for firms. The interaction of nation-states and non-governmental organizations in areas like politics, economy, and security is the main emphasis of international relations. To ensure that the global supply of minerals is resilient to tense international relations and supply chain disruptions, governments, businesses, and investors have come under increasing pressure as the net zero transition moves forward against the backdrop of a volatile geopolitical environment.

Supply Chain Resilience in the Face of Political Instability

Political instability in certain regions can disrupt supply chain operations, impacting sourcing, manufacturing, and distribution. For instance, consider the impact of political unrest in the Middle East on oil prices and the subsequent effect on global supply chains. Supply chain managers must be ready to minimize the ensuing disruptions when conflicts erupt or sudden changes to government regulations occur. Maintaining business continuity may entail diversifying sourcing regions, creating alternate transportation routes, or creating contingency plans. Another illustration comes from businesses in the textile and apparel sectors that can form alliances with producers and suppliers throughout numerous South Asian nations. Businesses can reduce the risks brought on by political unrest in a particular country by diversifying their sourcing regions and fostering close ties with suppliers in many nations. With this strategy, they can easily switch production or sourcing to different regional nations to keep up a stable supply of goods.

Trade Policies and Tariffs: Navigating Uncertain Waters

Geopolitical tensions often manifest in trade policies and tariffs, affecting global supply chains. Tariffs have been imposed on a variety of items because of recent trade disputes between major economies, like the United States and China. These trade obstacles may result in higher prices, disruption of current supply chain networks, and a need to change sourcing tactics. Businesses must actively watch shifting trade policies, evaluate the potential effects on their supply chains, and look for alternate sourcing choices to reduce risks if they are to meet these difficulties. Another instance is from the research by the University of Tennessee, which predicted that if a 25 percent duty were implemented, U.S. shipments would decline by at least $4.5 billion. Additionally, other markets like Brazil, which is already the world’s top exporter of soybeans, can fill the gap left by the United States.

Promoting Trade and Economic Cooperation

International relations play a crucial role in promoting trade and economic cooperation between nations. Bilateral and multilateral trade agreements establish frameworks that facilitate the flow of goods across borders, reduce trade barriers, and promote economic integration. For instance, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, now USMCA) has fostered trade between the United States, Mexico, and Canada, enabling seamless supply chain operations within the region. Such agreements provide businesses with expanded market access, encourage foreign investment, and enhance supply chain efficiency.

Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), also known as the Quad is an informal strategic forum comprising four nations, namely — United States of America (USA), India, Australia and Japan. One of the primary objectives of the Quad is to work for a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region. Deepening economic relationships among members of the Quad to increase technological and energy security amid China’s growing influence in the Asia-Pacific region could have long-term credit implications resulting from supply chain and trade reconfigurations.  Within the Quad, India’s supply chain resilience agenda can be guided by three principles: financing for resilience, attracting technology multinationals, and addressing raw-material dependencies. A high degree of concentration and inter-dependence in supply chains for lithium-ion batteries, chips and sophisticated displays between Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the US, and China. While the R&D lies with the US, UK, Japan and Taiwan, China leads in fabrication and assembly, as well as in providing crucial raw materials. With investments from the Quad, India can develop its base of rare earths and even collaborate on developing technologies that rely less on these critical minerals.

Another example of this can be from India. India has established strategic partnerships and trade agreements with various countries and regional blocs, creating favorable conditions for trade and investment. For instance, the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has promoted closer economic integration and facilitated the movement of goods, services, and investments. These partnerships open doors for Indian businesses to access new markets, expand their supply chain networks, and foster mutually beneficial trade relationships.

Diplomatic Relationships and Supply Chain Stability

Diplomatic relationships between countries contribute to supply chain stability. Strong diplomatic ties foster trust, cooperation, and a favorable business environment, reducing the risk of political disruptions. For example, The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) is an economic initiative, launched by the US and 12 other countries in May 2022, is a grouping that comprises more than 40 percent of global GDP. The member countries currently include Australia, Brunei, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and the USA. The IPEF aims to increase the resilience, efficiency, productivity, sustainability, transparency, diversification, security, fairness, and inclusivity,” of supply chains, through both collaborative activities and individual actions by each IPEF partner.

International Cooperation in Crisis Management

Global crises, such as natural disasters or pandemics, require international cooperation to ensure the continuity of supply chains. In times of crisis, countries must collaborate to address disruptions and maintain the flow of essential goods. The COVID-19 pandemic serves as a recent example of the role of international cooperation in supply chain management. Governments and organizations worked together to establish protocols, share information, and coordinate efforts to ensure the availability of critical medical supplies and essential goods. International collaboration in crisis management enhances supply chain resilience and highlights the importance of cross-border cooperation. Another example can be from India as India plays an active role in global initiatives on disaster management. India is a signatory to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and is committed to achieving the priorities and objectives through systematic and institutional efforts. With multi-dimensional initiatives and expertise, India is taking a leading role in strengthening regional cooperation among South Asian countries for reducing disasters. India is one of the participating countries and works closely with the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). India has been working closely with many countries for the exchange of ideas and expertise in disaster management.

Regulatory Harmonization and Compliance

International relations influence regulatory frameworks and standards that impact supply chain operations. Harmonization of regulations between countries simplifies compliance processes, reduces administrative burdens, and facilitates international trade. For instance, the European Union has established standardized regulations and certifications, such as CE marking for product conformity, streamlining compliance efforts for businesses operating within the EU market. CE marking indicates that a product has been assessed by the manufacturer and deemed to meet EU health, safety and environmental protection requirements. Alignment of regulations across borders promotes consistency, minimizes trade barriers, and enables smoother supply chain operations.

Addressing Political Risks and Market Access

Political risks, such as changes in government policies or trade disputes, can significantly impact supply chains. International relations play a crucial role in addressing these risks and ensuring market access. Diplomatic channels and negotiations between countries aim to resolve conflicts, prevent trade disruptions, and protect the interests of businesses operating globally. For example, diplomatic efforts between the United States and China have sought to ease trade tensions and create a more predictable environment for supply chain operations. Supply chain managers must stay informed about geopolitical developments, actively engage in advocacy efforts, and diversify their sourcing strategies to mitigate political risks.

Conclusion

The management of the supply chain is significantly impacted by international relations. They influence efforts to manage crises as well as trade policy, diplomatic relations, and regulatory frameworks. To handle uncertainty, supply chain professionals must proactively monitor geopolitical trends, cultivate strong international partnerships, and modify their strategies. Businesses may improve supply chain resilience, foster economic growth, and create long-lasting worldwide connections by comprehending the importance of international relations and actively participating in global networks.

Read more: Going for International Trade! Here are some Important Documents used in International Trade

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Shantanu Trivedi
Shantanu Trivedi
Shantanu Trivedi is working as a faculty at the University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun. He holds an MBA and a Ph.D. degree in Supply chain management. He has more than a decade of experience in teaching and research. He has published 2 books, 5 book chapters and more than 12 research papers and articles in international journals of repute. His research interest includes Supply chain management, agribusiness, online and distance education, Business sustainability and infrastructure management. He is the reviewer of many international publishing houses. He has presented his work and won awards at many research conferences and symposiums. He has worked on many research with state governments and the government of India. In his spare time, Shantanu loves to travel and explore nature.
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