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HomeProcurement/Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model: Its application Benefits and Way forward

Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model: Its application Benefits and Way forward

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Supply chain operations play a pivotal role in the success of any business. The Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model is a comprehensive framework that provides organizations with a structured approach to optimizing their supply chain processes. In this article, we will delve into the key components of the SCOR model, and its benefits, and try to explain how it works to illustrate its implementation.

Defining the SCOR Model

The SCOR model is a management supply chain you can use to address, improve and communicate decisions related to supply chain management within a company and with its suppliers and customers. It explains the processes within the supply chain and provides a standardized baseline for improving these processes.

The SCOR model integrates business concepts like benchmarking, measurement and reengineering into a singular framework. This provides a comprehensive look at the business processes needed to satisfy customer demands. The purpose of a process reference model, or business process framework, is to define process architecture in a way that aligns with key business functions and goals. The architecture here references how processes interact and perform, how these processes are configured, and the requirements (skills) of staff operating the processes.

The SCOR reference model consists of 4 major sections:

Performance: Standard metrics to describe process performance and define strategic goals

Processes: Standard descriptions of management processes and process relationships

Practices: Management practices that produce significantly better process performance

People: Standard definitions for skills required to perform supply chain processes.

It is a widely used framework for understanding, assessing, and improving supply chain performance.

The SCOR model is organized around five primary management processes:

  • Plan: This process involves developing a plan for meeting customer demand.
  • Source: This process involves acquiring the materials and services needed to produce the product or service.
  • Make: This process involves transforming the acquired materials and services into the final product or service.
  • Deliver: This process involves getting the product or service to the customer.
  • Return: This process involves handling returns from customers.

In addition to the five primary processes, the SCOR model also includes two enabling processes:

  • Enable: This process involves providing the infrastructure and resources needed to support the other processes.
  • Measure: This process involves collecting and analysing data to measure the performance of the supply chain.

The SCOR model can be used to analyze a supply chain at any level of detail. It can be used to assess the overall performance of a supply chain, or it can be used to drill down into specific processes or activities.

Benefits of using the SCOR model

Enhanced Process Efficiency

By identifying and addressing bottlenecks, organizations can streamline their supply chain processes. It helps to identify areas for improvement.

Improved Collaboration

The SCOR model promotes cross-functional collaboration, fostering better communication between departments. It provides a common language for discussing supply chain management.

Performance Measurement

Clear performance metrics help monitor progress and identify areas for improvement. It can be used to benchmark performance against other companies.

Customer Satisfaction

Optimized supply chain processes lead to faster delivery times and better product availability, ultimately improving customer satisfaction.

How the SCOR model works?

The SCOR model uses three levels to measure the performance of an organization’s supply chain. This helps create standardized metrics so that organizations can compare their performance to that of businesses of comparable size. The metric includes over 250 SCOR metrics to evaluate, and each metric relates to one of five performance attributes, which are agility, asset management efficiency, costs, reliability and responsiveness. Organizations use these metrics to establish requirements for the supply chain. This helps them determine which attributes to prioritize and which areas it performs at an average pace.

The levels for measuring these metrics and evaluating the supply chain are:

  • Level one: This involves defining the scope, including the context and geography. This level focuses on the main components of the SCOR model.
  • Level two: This involves configuring the supply chain, including geographies, products and segments. This level includes high-level metrics evaluated across many SCOR processes and subcategories related to parent categories in level one.
  • Level three: This involves processing element details and identifying the key business activities within the supply chain. This level also allows you to associate any level two subcategory or process with a level three process.

SCOR 4.0

SCOR 4.0 is an upgraded version of the Supply Chain Operations Reference model, incorporating digitalization, sustainability, and customer-centricity. By adopting SCOR 4.0 principles, companies can unlock new levels of efficiency, innovation, and competitiveness in their supply chain processes.

Key Enhancements in SCOR 4.0 Include

  • Digital Transformation 
  • End-to-End Visibility
  • Sustainability Integration
  • Resilience Planning
  • Customer-Centric Approach


The Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model serves as a valuable tool for enhancing supply chain processes and driving operational excellence. By strategically implementing the SCOR framework, organizations can achieve higher efficiency, improved collaboration, and ultimately, heightened customer satisfaction. The continued integration of technology, the expansion of AI applications, and the emergence of new eco-friendly practices will shape the evolution of supply chains.

Also read: Some Contemporary Theories in Supply Chain Management

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Shantanu Trivedi
Shantanu Trivedi
Shantanu Trivedi is working as a faculty at the University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun. He holds an MBA and a Ph.D. degree in Supply chain management. He has more than a decade of experience in teaching and research. He has published 2 books, 5 book chapters and more than 12 research papers and articles in international journals of repute. His research interest includes Supply chain management, agribusiness, online and distance education, Business sustainability and infrastructure management. He is the reviewer of many international publishing houses. He has presented his work and won awards at many research conferences and symposiums. He has worked on many research with state governments and the government of India. In his spare time, Shantanu loves to travel and explore nature.
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